In Part 1 of this series on Understanding Book Printing Estimates for Self-Publishers we looked at the specific items included on a typical book printing estimate from an offset printer. The second part examined how to use that language to get accurate estimates from book printers, based on your exact specifications. In this third and final post, we’ll look at how this all comes together on the printer’s Quotation.
The Printer’s Quotation you receive in response to your Request for Estimate embodies all the specifications for the physical manufacture of your book. In addition, it is a contract between you and the printer, and after you sign the quotation you will be bound by what’s in it, as well as the printer’s terms and conditions. A lot of the terms and conditions have to do with standard trade practice and we’ve already talked about some of the customs you’ll encounter when printing your book with an offset printer.
As an example I’m using a sample quote provided by the good people at Thomson-Shore in Dexter, Michigan. I have a long association with Thomson-Shore and continue to print books there for their outstanding quality and excellent customer service. I’m grateful to Thomson-Shore for giving me permission to use this form.
You’ll notice in my illustration that there’s a place for you to sign at the bottom, and you should remember that you are signing on behalf of your publishing company, and committing to the project as it’s outlined in the estimate. Let’s take a look at this form.
A Project Summary in Specifications
The estimator has taken our specifications and transferred them to the printer’s quote. It’s a good idea to look over the quotation to see if it accurately reflects everything you outlined in your request for estimate.
In this sample, for instance, I note that the cover stock is 10 point C1S (coated-one-side) instead of the 12 point I specified. The reason for this is that the printer has standardized their book quotes, using the 10 point stock as the default.
If you look at the bottom of the quote you’ll see several items typed in by the estimator, and one of them is:
“12 pt C1S COVERS ADD $.08/EA”
From this I know the estimator read my instructions, and provided a price for this upgrade. I’ll just have to work out the unit cost myself.
Looking at the price grid at the bottom of the quote, there aren’t any unit prices at all. Some printers will include this for your convenience. But examining the rest of the “options” that have been added to the quote, it’s obvious we’re going to have a little math to do anyway.
The only other discrepancy I can see on this sample quote is the packing: single wall cartons are called for, although I specified “HD” or heavy-duty (double-wall) cartons. Everything else is fine, and the difference in the cartons is a minor one.
Getting to the Price
We have prices on quantities of 1,500 and 2,500 books. The only thing in the pricing you might note is that paper is the largest single cost in book manufacturing. The paper we’re using, a natural white paper that has a recycled component, is not the least expensive paper available. Reducing or increasing the quality of the paper will have a marked effect on the price.
The quote says that 1,500 books will cost $2,310, or $1.54 each. Add to this the cost of my options, the heavier cover stock (+$.02) and the matte lamination I requested (+$.08). But because we’re using the heavier stock, the estimator has thoughtfully included the cost of scoring the covers, (scoring puts a crease or fold in the paper at the hinge of the spine) which will make them easier to handle and not as stiff as they would be without the scoring.
So here’s my calculation of what these book are actually going to cost:
$2,310 + 35 = $2,345
$2,345 / 1,500 = $1.56
$1.56 + .02 + 0.8 = $1.66
$3,110 + 35 = $3,145
$3,145 / 2,500 = $1.26
$1.26 + .02 + .08 = $1.36
Of course, you have to pay freight, too. But I haven’t included that.
You can see that raising the quantity has caused the unit price to drop by about 20%, a significant difference. The price would continue to drop as the quantity increases.
(For the curious, this book would cost $4.23 at Lightning Source.)
A Note About Trade Practices
There are many trade practices in printing, and the back of your estimate form may be covered in 10 point type printed in gray ink detailing these. The most important “trade practice” to understand is regarding the quantity of books you order versus the number of books that will be delivered.
Trade custom dictates that you may receive “10% overs/unders.” This means that the printer can deliver as many as 10% fewer or more books than you ordered and still have fulfilled your print order.
If you ordered 2,000 books, your shipment will be somewhere between 1,800 and 2,200 books. Your invoice will be adjusted to reflect the final quantity shipped, and usually the printer will supply a “overs/unders” or “additional hundreds (000)” price to calculate this unit cost.
Here you can see that overs/unders are priced at $.99 each. This allows you to pick any quantity you like and calculate what the price will be. For instance, maybe this author decides 1,750 books is what she needs. When she asks how much the books will cost, I’ll do the following calculation:
1,500 books = $2,345 (from above)
250 books @ .99 each = 247.50
1,750 books = $2,345 + 247.50 = $2,592.50
$2,592.50 / 1,750 = $1.48 each
$1.48 + .02 + .08 = $1.58
From this you can see that all the information we need to arrive at any particular quantity is on this Quotation. It is a document with a long history and established parameters. It represents all the thought and planning we’ve put into the physical manufacture of the book, and for any book that will be offset printed, it’s one of the most important documents in the production of the book.
That wraps up our look at book printing estimates from offset printers. Knowing the language of printing allows you to write an accurate specification in your Request for Estimate. Comparing your request with the printer’s Quote will assure you you’re getting the book you want. Doing a little math will get you to the unit cost of your books.
If you have questions about this process, leave them in the comments and we’ll try to help out.
Photo by Horia Varlan