ISBN for Self-Publishers: Answers to 20 of your Questions

by Joel Friedlander on March 17, 2010 · 376 comments

barcodesampleOne of the areas that I get the most questions about is the use of the ISBN, the unique numeric identifier that’s used around the world to identify books. New self-publishers are especially concerned with making sure their books are registered properly, that everything is done so that their book can be sold without any problems or confusion.

Because this area is specific to the book business, there’s a lot of confusion and misinformation about ISBN and how it works. I strongly recommend you use the resources provided by Bowker, the company responsible for ISBNs in the United States, on the ISBN website and at Bowker’s website.

But even faster, without any further delay, here are 20 answers to the most commonly-asked questions about ISBN.

Questions and Answers about ISBN

  1. What is an ISBN?
    ISBN stands for International Standard Book Number. It is a 13-digit number that’s used as a unique identifier for books. ISBN is used internationally.
  2. What do all the numbers mean?
    See my earlier article on decoding the ISBN.
  3. Why do we need ISBNs?
    We need them to identify each book that is published, and each edition of the same book. ISBN also identifies the publisher of the book. It is the standard ID number used to identify books by booksellers, libraries, book wholesalers and distributors.
  4. Should I get an ISBN?
    If you plan to sell your book in bookstores, to libraries, or through online retailers like Amazon.com, you will need an ISBN.
  5. Does a book have to be published to have an ISBN?
    ISBNs are issued to publishers, who then assign them to individual books. This can be done at any time, even before the book is written.
  6. Is the ISBN the bar code I see on the back of books?
    The bar code is a representation of the ISBN in a form that can be identified by scanners. The bar code might also have other information embedded in it, like the price of the book and the currency in which it is priced.
  7. Okay, do I need to have a bar code too?
    Only if you plan to sell your book in bookstores. If you only plan to sell online, or privately like at speaking engagements, you don’t need a bar code. Many publishers put them on their books anyway.
  8. If I get an ISBN, does that mean my book is copyrighted?
    No, ISBN is administered by a private company for the use of the international book trade. Copyright is administered by the Library of Congress and is an extension of intellectual property law.
  9. If I have an ISBN, does that mean my book will be in Books in Print?
    Once you have an ISBN you can go to BowkerLink to fill out the forms necessary for your book to be listed in Books in Print.
  10. Can self-publishers get an ISBN?
    A self-publisher is still a publisher, so yes, you just apply for an ISBN like anyone else.
  11. How do I get an ISBN?
    Go to myidentifiers.com, the ISBN website run by Bowker, which is the only company authorized to administer the ISBN program in the United States. Click on “ISBN Identifiers” and you’ll be taken to a page where you can buy 1, 10, 100 or 1000 ISBNs.
  12. How many ISBNs should I buy?
    The least economical choice is to buy 1 ISBN. If you ever publish another edition of your book, or another book entirely, you will need more than one ISBN. I suggest you buy the 10 pack.
  13. What do ISBNs cost?
    A single ISBN today costs $125, while 10 ISBNs cost $250, 100 cost $575 and 1000 cost $1000. Note that the price per ISBN drops from $125 to $25 to $5.75 to $1.
  14. Isn’t it just a number? Why does a number cost $125?
    Many people are pondering this question, so far without an answer. Obviously, it’s not because of the cost of the product. Could there be another reason?
  15. Well, can I re-use my ISBN?
    No, sorry, once assigned to a book, an ISBN can never be reused.
  16. Where do I put the ISBN?
    You’ll print it on the copyright page, and it’s included in the Cataloging-in-Publication data block, if you use one. Otherwise, just print it on the copyright page and, of course, on the back cover as part of the bar code.
  17. I’m doing a print book and an ebook. Do I need two ISBNs, or can I use the same one?
    This is a matter of some discussion at the moment, since there are more and more electronic formats. The policy of assigning a separate ISBN to each and every edition is under review. Check back for more info.
  18. How about a hardcover and a softcover of the same book?
    You need a separate ISBN for each edition, to identify them for everyone who might want to find them in directories, catalogs and databases.
  19. If I revise my book, do I need to give it a new ISBN?
    If you only correct typographical errors, and don’t make any substantial changes to the text, you don’t need a new ISBN because it’s considered a reprint. A new edition would contain substantially new material, a major revision, or the addition of completely new elements. Anything that makes it a new book is likely to create a new edition and, therefore, need a new ISBN.
  20. How about if I just change the cover?
    You can continue to use the same ISBN, since the text has not changed.

Well, there you have it. In 20 questions and about 5 minutes, you’ve overcome the confusion about ISBN. Have a question you didn’t see answered here? Ask in the comments and we’ll run down the answer.

Takeaway: Getting the ISBN for your new publishing company is a necessary step to becoming a publisher and getting your book into print correctly. It’s not difficult once you understand how to do it.

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    { 352 comments… read them below or add one }

    Anju Saha May 23, 2015 at 5:10 am

    Hi Joel,
    A really simple yet highly informative article. I still have one question.
    I wrote a book and self-published it – . “Our Heritage Revisited : A glimpse into ancient Indian texts”. it was meant for distribution/sale amongst my own circle. Feedback being excellent, I got a reprint. I have now applied for and got two ISBN nos. for paperback and e-book from the authority that issues ISBNs in India.

    My question is this – since I still have quite a few of the reprint books available with me, can I now merely affix / paste the ISBN no. /barcode on the appropriate places or do I need to get another lot of books printed? In a reply to Moshe you have indicated that stickers can be used over the wrong barcode – can this be done when originally there was no ISBN no.?

    Thanks

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander May 23, 2015 at 3:38 pm

    Yes, Anju, stickers will work fine for your book. On the next printing include the ISBN barcode and also put the ISBN on your copyright page.

    Reply

    Anju Saha May 23, 2015 at 5:52 pm

    Thanks, Joel. Now I am set to go.

    Reply

    Fumi Suzuki May 20, 2015 at 1:00 pm

    Hello Joel,

    Thank you for the informative article.

    I’m currently developing a activity sticker book for children of age 4+. For these type of activity books, do I need to purchase the ISBN/EAN or can I just use the UPC instead?

    I’m planning to sell my activity book to many different retailers (gift shop, museum shop, bookstore, etc…) in the US and internationally.

    Please help me clarify this question. Thank you in advance.

    Best,
    Fumi

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander May 20, 2015 at 1:16 pm

    Fumi, you will need an ISBN if you plan to sell in bookstores and other stores that buy from book distributors and wholesalers. If you go farther afield into non-bookstore retailers, you may need to also add a UPC, but in my experience that’s pretty rare since virtually everyone knows and uses ISBN.

    Reply

    Claus May 12, 2015 at 5:52 am

    Hey Joel, what a great and helpful post, thanks!!!
    Maybe you could update question No 17 a bit “I’m doing a print book and an ebook. Do I need two ISBNs, or can I use the same one?”
    I think it´s quite clear, that you cannot use the same ISBN for eBook and print anymore. If you want a ISBN for eBook, you need a separate one, right!?
    Best regards, Claus

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander May 12, 2015 at 11:16 am

    Claus, thanks for your comment. I’m sure you can appreciate the difficulty in keeping 1,500+ articles up to date at all times. Actually, the situation hasn’t changed much. In #17 I wasn’t implying that you could use the same ISBN for print and ebooks, but questioning whether different ebook formats should each get their own ISBN since they are, in effect, different editions. Today, in 2015, most authors don’t assign an ISBN to their Kindle format ebooks, since Amazon does not require it, but they do assign a unique ISBN to their ePub format ebooks.

    Reply

    Yuri Futanari May 11, 2015 at 12:29 am

    Dear Joe,

    Is there a way that I can use the ISBN to track international sales of my book now that it has been issued?

    I have found my book offered for sale on more than 70 web sites around the world, and these sites are in at least 8 different languages, although as far as I know my book is only being offered in the language I wrote it in, (English) and I have no way of knowing if I am getting an accurate sales report since the company originally contracted to sell it for me has lied repeatedly saying that no sales were made until I provided case-by-case proof of those sales.

    I want to know how many sales have been made and be able to prove it in court should I find that it is as I believe it is that they are simply cheating me the novice writer out of my royalties.

    Reply

    David J. May 8, 2015 at 11:16 am

    Hi Joel,
    Here’s maybe the strangest question you’ve gotten. I’ve written a fiction
    e-book under a pseudo name, and self-published on Amazon, Smashwords, etc. It’s sold only a handful of copies. But I now wish to slightly alter the pseudo name. A made-up example:
    “A Long Summer Day” by B. Jones is changed to: “A Long Summer Day” by Bob Jones? Another ISBN number would be required, I’m sure, if it can be done at all. What do you think?

    Reply

    Evita May 7, 2015 at 8:57 pm

    Two very ‘green’ questions. 1:If we, a circle of women, self- publish a book do we need to register our publishing name? 2: if we are starting with 500 books does that mean we need to buy a pack of 500 isbns? One for each book or is it one for each series of books even if we print more of the same book after the initial run? Much appreciated if you could answer this to total novice.

    Reply

    Mr Singh May 7, 2015 at 3:43 am

    Hi, quick question. Getting an ISBN in India is very difficult. Can I buy the ISBN no. Online from a US based website for $100 and publish the book in india? Sell it on amazon, flipkart etc

    Would there be any issue?

    Need your expert advice..

    Reply

    david May 6, 2015 at 2:06 pm

    Kudos, good discussions

    Reply

    marcia May 1, 2015 at 4:46 pm

    I am confused about whether or it is better to include the price of my book in the barcode, or if it is fine to leave the price at $0.00 with the 90000 code in case the price end up changing later, (or after general inflation). Is there a benefit to including the price? Even if retailers don’t care , it seems more professional to me to have the price included.
    Thanks!

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander May 4, 2015 at 11:01 am

    Marcia, I’ve heard debates about this for years, and for a long time I used the “null” barcode (no price indicated) on client’s books. This was partly because at the time bookstores reported that they didn’t use the price part of the barcode anyway, they only scanned the ISBN to retrieve pricing and other data from their own database. However, many people include the price in the barcode. All this leads me to believe that whether it makes a difference or not, the effect is probably minimal, so do what you think is best for your books.

    Reply

    marcia May 8, 2015 at 7:29 am

    Thank you very much for your response, Joel. Thank you for helping so many others. What you do is so important!

    Reply

    Moshe April 29, 2015 at 9:59 am

    I have printed a book (500 copies) with the wrong bar code.

    What happened is that I was sent the wrong bar code by the local agency giving the ISBN, and believe it or not, they sent me another one !

    What would you advise ? (Forget about it, put stickers, … ?)

    Thanks

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander April 29, 2015 at 11:53 am

    Hey Moshe, this stuff happens, you’re not the first to face this problem. The best/fastest fix for this is to get stickers with the correct barcode and sticker the printed books. There are likely a lot of sources for these, I usually use BarCode Graphics. Here’s a link to their ISBN labels page: http://www.orderbarcodelabels.com/isbn_pricing/

    Reply

    Annie Mitchell April 25, 2015 at 11:18 am

    Did you know if you have a CreateSpace ISBN assigned by them you cannot upload your book title to BowkerLink

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander April 25, 2015 at 2:05 pm

    Annie, that’s because BowkerLink is for publishers, and since the publisher owns all the ISBNs assigned to them, in your case that’s CreateSpace. Another good reason to buy and maintain your own ISBNs.

    Reply

    Annie Mitchell April 26, 2015 at 5:44 am

    once you buy and obtain your own ISBN can you then distribute your books on any online store eg create space and lulu etc or must you onlu choose one

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander April 26, 2015 at 2:27 pm

    Your distribution choices have nothing to do with your ISBN, but all the distribution arrangements that indie authors usually use are nonexclusive which means you are free to sell your books wherever you like.

    Reply

    Jeff April 14, 2015 at 4:52 am

    Thanks for writing this Joel!

    I am getting closer and closer to self publishing a set of three children’s books. All related and all equally priced.

    I have purchased my ISBNs and am now looking at getting my barcode.

    Can I use the same barcode for all three books with different ISBNs of course?

    Thanks in advance!
    Jeff

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander April 14, 2015 at 10:44 am

    Hey Jeff,

    You need a separate barcode for each ISBN, and that’s because the Bookland EAN Barcode used on books is simply a scannable version of the ISBN. You don’t want to end up with the barcode for one book on the other books, too, that wouldn’t make sense. Also, wait on buying any barcodes, since many book designers supply them at no cost.

    Reply

    Jeff April 14, 2015 at 6:16 pm

    Thanks!!

    Reply

    Kenny Mitchell April 3, 2015 at 3:37 pm

    Dear Joel,

    My apologies if this has been answered before. I have published four novels with a previous publisher. The original tome was so large that we mutually agreed to print it as a trilogy. I wrote one succeeding novel in the series. Since that time I have left the company and although the original trilogy (contract) expires this year I am happy to self publish.

    My original publisher sent a letter of separation from myself and her company. She said that the books are mine to distribute as I wish but only in the original unedited (she helped edit it) format and as a single tome.

    I want to keep the original trilogy (sub) names and continue writing the series. We are doing new covers and editing the (GLARING) errors from the original novels.

    My questions sir, if I use the original titles is this a breach of contract? As I said, I have been released (mutually) from the original contract (which was ending this year anyway) and she has allowed me to leave her company with all titles reverting to me. I just have built up a huge fan base and hate to confuse them with the same books but with a new subtitle. I understand not using the same covers but where do I stand legally as far as the original titles are concerned?

    Thanks so much. Miracles & Blessings to you (shameless plug)!

    ps

    By the way we are using the intellectual property as a play in Atlanta this fall! Wish us luck!

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander April 3, 2015 at 5:11 pm

    Kenny,

    This is an odd situation. If the publisher is reverting all rights to you I don’t see how she is able to dictate requirements for your own publishing. As an item of information, you cannot copyright titles, so I don’t think there’s any reason you need to abandon them. However, I am not a lawyer and it sounds to me like it might be a good idea to consult with an intellectual property attorney to make certain exactly what your rights are with these books. It would be worth the cost and you will launch your new enterprise on firm ground. Good luck!

    Reply

    Judah Synnestvedt April 22, 2015 at 7:28 am

    What a great thread on ISBNS! I’ve been so confused about all the different opinions. I’m in the process of preparing my manuscript for publication. Kenny, one thing that’s been a big help is getting a membership with LegalZoom. (Sorry if this sounds like official endorsement for legalzoom. It’s not. I’m just a very happy customer and a fellow writer who thinks it’s a great biz/author resource.) Unlimited basic consultations with lawyers is not too good to be true–for less than $300/year!
    There’s an intellectual property lawyer that has been a big help.
    This thread reminded me I should set up another consultation about copyright stuff.

    Reply

    Rodger Holm March 28, 2015 at 6:30 pm

    Can I buy my ISBNs before I form my publishing company, or should I wait until it has been formed? Thank you.

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander March 30, 2015 at 10:50 am

    I suggest waiting, Rodger, so you can set up your account at Bowker in the name of your new publishing company.

    Reply

    Mandeep Singh March 13, 2015 at 3:03 am

    Hello Joel,

    First of thanks very much for providing this valuable information. My name is Mandeep Singh, I am from New Delhi / India. I have kept ready a Softcopy in PDF format and simply want to print it as a book. In other words I want to become a self publisher of this book. My question is : I have no applied ISBN number so far. Can I sell it without ISBN number online?

    Kindly Suggest.

    Reply

    Mandeep Singh April 15, 2015 at 12:55 am

    Dear Sir, I wrote my question to you but bad luck that you haven’t answered me. Again I am here with the same.

    My name is Mandeep Singh, I am from New Delhi / India. I have kept ready a Softcopy in PDF format and simply want to print it as a book. In other words I want to become a self publisher of this book. My question is : I have no applied ISBN number so far. Can I sell it without ISBN number online?

    Expecting you reply this time.

    Thanks

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander April 15, 2015 at 10:36 am

    Mandeep, you can certainly sell your PDF without an ISBN if you are selling it yourself, or on some of the document sites that accept PDFs. The ISBN is strictly for book retailers and provides a way to attach a unique identifier to each edition of a book.

    Reply

    Shannon March 11, 2015 at 8:57 am

    I self-published my first book with create space who provided me with an ISBN number. Am I bound to Create Space with this first book? If I wanted to change publishers, would I be able to?

    I am in the design phase of my second book, should I purchase my own ISBN number?

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander March 11, 2015 at 12:10 pm

    Shannon,

    You can’t use the CreateSpace ISBN with any other print on demand vendors. If you want to move to another POD vendor, or add one, I recommend you get your own ISBNs. The book isn’t “bound” to CreateSpace, but that ISBN is.

    (Editorial nitpick: ISBN stands for International Standard Book Number so “ISBN number” is redundant. Just saying.)

    Reply

    Shannon March 12, 2015 at 5:01 am

    Thank you for the information. I understand that if I wanted to go with Create Space initially, but then decided to go elsewhere, I could create a new edition, purchase a new ISBN, and then go on from there. Is that accurate?

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander March 12, 2015 at 11:07 am

    Shannon, you can certainly do that. However, if you “unpublish” the book at CreateSpace, you likely don’t need to create a new edition, you can simply note on the copyright page that it formerly had a different ISBN so there’s no confusion about whether it’s a different book or the same one.

    Reply

    Lori February 27, 2015 at 3:50 pm

    Hi Joel,

    Looking on the website to by ISBN’s, it also sells barcodes. Do I need to place these on the books, if I want to sell through a retailer, or can I give the publishing company (not a publisher) my ISBN and they can print it on the book?

    Thank you,

    Lori

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander March 2, 2015 at 10:07 am

    It’s likely that whoever produces the cover for your book will be able to place the barcode on it, and yes, it’s needed for retail sales.

    Reply

    Terry February 18, 2015 at 5:39 pm

    When a company provide an ISBN# as part of self-publishing package; does the Author own such ISBN? Your presentation is a valuable eye opener.. thanks

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander February 18, 2015 at 5:52 pm

    Terry, the ISBN supplied by a “self-publishing” company belongs to them, and if anyone looks into who the publisher is, it will show their name, not yours. This is fine if you’re trying to save money or publishing as a hobby or for personal circulation, but it’s a less than optimal choice if you plan to publish as a business.

    Reply

    Terry February 18, 2015 at 6:53 pm

    Thanks Joel…This is amazing: I was completely fooled. Can you breakdown my ISBN 978-1-4990-7659-2. I would really love to learn what info it provides. There is also a smaller set of codes with the following numbers 52399.

    Thanks

    Reply

    Constanza February 18, 2015 at 10:29 am

    Dear Joel,

    Say I want to self-publish my book on three different websites with different perks. It’s the same book and the same cover art and all three websites offer a free ISBN. Should I just use those ISBNs, three different ones for the same book? I haven’t found a single article on this. These three different websites have their pros and cons and all offer to sell my book on their exclusive website aside from Amazon, for example. I just thought it could open up a whole world for my book to be featured not only on Amazon, but also on their websites.

    I’d appreciate any insight and advice.

    Thanks for your time!

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander February 18, 2015 at 11:48 am

    Costanza, here’s a very short article that addresses your question directly:

    It’s a good idea to have your book available on multiple retailer sites
    It’s a very bad idea to publish the same book with 3 different ISBNs. If the book is the same, the ISBN should be the same.

    Hope that helps.

    Reply

    Roslyn February 11, 2015 at 12:40 pm

    Hi Joel – Thanks for your article. I’ve written a book and am working on getting a foreword and endorsements from some high profile people who will help drive sales and media attention. I need to get the book printed asap so that I can sell it at speaking engagements and from my own website. However, if I ever want to submit it to literary agents/publishers, I’ve read that they frown on self-published books with ISBN’s where there are only a few copies sold. For the sake of time I’m thinking to self-publish without an ISBN and if I decide to stay self-published I can always get an ISBN should I want to make the book widely available through bookstores and online retailers. And if I get my desired foreword and endorsements and then want to submit to publishers and agents for wider distribution instead of continuing with self-publishing, then there won’t have been an ISBN yet attached to the book to make it less desirable. Any advice or comments would be hugely appreciated as to this approach. I’m also concerned that a publisher will want to make a lot of changes to my book.

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander February 11, 2015 at 4:32 pm

    Roslyn, you need to be aware that your approach will work only if you publish on Kindle and nowhere else. You can’t do this with a print book or an ebook that will be sold by other retailers, so please take that into account.

    Reply

    Roslyn February 11, 2015 at 7:09 pm

    Thanks, Joel. Just to clarify my understanding, if I plan to only sell my print book at speaking engagements and my own proprietary website to start and nowhere else, then can I do so without an ISBN? If I sell my e-book version also only off my own website, do I need an ISBN to do that? If I understand correctly, I only need the ISBN if I plan to sell through other retailers whether online or offline, right?

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander February 13, 2015 at 11:44 am

    I only need the ISBN if I plan to sell through other retailers whether online or offline, right?

    Correct.

    Reply

    Jim Kadel February 7, 2015 at 8:50 am

    I’d like to see this general question answered as part of your 20 Answers.

    When in the process of writing a book, can one purchase the ISBN? In other words, can one purchase this number at any time or must the book be finished as far as writing it goes.

    Thanx for your consideration of this request,

    Jim Kadel
    Feb 7, 2015

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander February 7, 2015 at 3:59 pm

    Jim,

    The assignment of ISBNs is a publishing function and has nothing to do with whether the book is finished or not.

    Reply

    Modi February 5, 2015 at 7:25 pm

    Hi Joel,

    I have two questions for you. (1) I have self-published four books without ISBNs. But, now I am thinking about giving them ISBNs. Is it still possible to do so or is it too late?

    (2) My books are in a language other then English. Does that matter when getting ISBN number?

    Many thanks in advance.

    -Modi

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander February 6, 2015 at 11:39 am

    Modi, there’s no reason you can’t assign ISBN to the four published books, it’s never too late. The language that the book is not relevant, but the country in which the publisher is located determines where you get your ISBNs. For instance, in the U.S. it’s from Bowker, who is the ISBN agent for this country. Every country is different, so you’ll need to answer that part of your question locally. You can find a list of all international ISBN agencies here: https://www.isbn-international.org/agencies

    Reply

    AeyBey January 28, 2015 at 2:00 pm

    Dear Joel,

    I am writing a book in English, intend to be publish in India, because of cheap publishing cost.
    Initially 5000 copies shall be printed, but if the response is good then the next print would be of 100,000 copies.
    How do I sfeguard myself from printer, and how do I ensure of copy right.
    Please tell me how to go about it, what is requiredof me, should I buy one ISBN or ten.
    At present money is scare, so I have to be careful.
    If I buy a British ISBN, can I sell my book in American and European Book sellers, or if I buy an American ISBN can I sell my book in Europe and other parts of the world.
    Please tell me how to sell my book to American libraries. The retail cost of my book will be around 30 dollars.
    I need guidence.
    What is your fee for full guidence.
    Kind Regards
    Aeybey

    Reply

    authorMadness January 21, 2015 at 9:11 am

    Thanks, Joel, this information has be extremely beneficial to me as we start up our new endeavor.

    Reply

    Ian Whiteman January 13, 2015 at 5:10 am

    I’m based in Spain and am about to publish a book in English selling to the English speaking market. Nielsens (the UK ISBN agency) seem to indicate that I have to get the ISBN in Spain though I would rather it was in the UK.
    Any advice?

    Reply

    Joel Friedlander January 14, 2015 at 11:18 am

    Ian, Nielsens’ is correct. The ISBNs should be issued by the country in which the publisher is located, regardless of where the books will be sold or what language they are written in.

    Reply

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